National Park - Biodiversity Features
The park is known for its rich floral diversity.
It contains diverse ecosystems ranging from
tall alluvial floodplain grassland of early
successional stage to climax stage sal forest
established on uplands. A vegetation study
conducted by Dinerstein (1979) classified
six major vegetation types. Jnawali and
Wegge (1993) later modified this into seven
major vegetation types. Sharma (1999) has
classified the vegetation of southwestern
section of the park into 15 different microhabitats.
Major vegetation types found in the park
are summarized below:
Shorea robusta forest makes above
70% of the forest cover in the park and
grows on well-drained uplands. S. robusta,
Terminalia sps., Buchanania latifolia, Carrya
arboria and Dilenia pentagyna are common
species found in this vegetation type.
forest is established on relatively
old floodplain and consist of Dalbergia
sissoo and Acacia catechu as dominating
tree species. Other tree species found in
this association include Ehretia laevis,
Trewia nudiflora and Mallotus philippinensis.
Murraya koinigii, Callicarpa macrophylla
and Colebrookia opposotofolia are important
shrub species that form dense under story
riverine forest extends along watercourses.
Syzigium cumini, Mallotus philippinensis,
Ficus glomerata, Trewia nudiflora, and Dalbergia
sissoo are among commonly found tree species
in this type of vegetation. The groung is
relatively open and contains humain soil.
Climbing plam Calamus tanusi and Karot (Teliacora
sps), both climbers are indicator species
of moist riverine forest.
hardwood forest grows in well-drained
areas. Adina Cordifolia, Casearia tomentosa,
lagerstroemia parviflora and Mitragyna parviflora
are among tree species found in this type.
grasslands are similar to Savanna
type where ground vegetation is dominated
by grass species with sparsely distributed
tree species. Common grass species found
in this vegetationtype are Saccharum spontaneum,
Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum bengalensis,
Desmostachia bipinnata and Vetiveria zizanoides.
Sparsely distributed tree species include
Bombax ceiba, M. phillippensis, A. cordifolia,
Largerstroemia parviflora and Dalbergia
the open short grassland area on previously
cultivated fields. Imperata cylindrica,
Saccharum spontanum and Narenga perphrocoma
are the dominating grass species in phantas.
Baghaura and Lamkoili Phantas in the southwestern
section, and Guthi, Shivpur, Sanosiri, Thulosiri
and Chepang phantas are the typical example
of this type.
floodplain grassland grows on the riverbeds
of Geruwa, Orai and Babai Rivers. The dominating
species of these grasslands include Saccharum
spontaneum, Saccharum bengalensis, Phragmites
karka and arundax.