National Park - Physical Features
Topography and drainage
The topography of the park is quite
diverse with flood plains, river valleys
and gorges, and the Churia hill. The park's
northern boundary is the crest of the Churia
range, which is well above 1219m. The highest
elevation is 1441 m at Sukramala and the
lowest elevation is 152m (Manau Ghat) is
the south. The southern slope of the Churia
range is quite steep, falling steadily to
ca 350m and merging into the flat land,
below 152 m. Almost 42% of the area lies
between 250-500 meters whereas about 5.4%
areas lies between 750-1000 meters.
and Babai Rivers are perennial river systems
that flow through the park. The eastern
branch of Karnail River forms the western
boundary of the park where as Babai River
drain the park in the northeastern sector.
Orai River and Gumnaha Nala and Ambasa Khola
drain the park area between Karnali and
Babai rivers. Maan Khola, Karolia Nala and
many other seasonal nasal drain the southern
face of the Churia between Babai and eastern
border of the park.
The dominant slope of the park is above
300 with more then 20-cm deep soil that
covers almost 34% of the park area. Whereas
the dominant slope of the buffer zone is
below 10 with deep soil that covers ca 66%
of buffer zone area. The geological formation
of the Churia range is the determining factor
for the soil types of the park. The Churia
is of late tertiary in origin. Exposed rocks
consist of fine-grained sand stone with
pockets of clay, shale, conglomerate and
freshwater limestone. Soils are young, shallow
and subject to high rates of erosion and
landslides. The Bhabar zone boulder, cobbles,
gravels and course sand inter bedded with
silt and clay from the Churia. Most of the
park belongs to Bhabar zone. The alluvial
soils in the flat low land below the Bhabar
are quite deep.
Bardia National Park has a sub-tropical
monsoon climate with three distinct season
in the annual cycle: hot season (March-June),
Monsoon (July-October) and winter (October-February).
About 90% of the precipitation occur during
the month of July, August and September.
The absolute maximum temperature of 410C
and minimum temperature of 3.10C were recorded
in May 1996 and January 1987 respectively.
The highest rainfall of 2798 mm and lowest
rainfall of 1592 mm occurred in the year
1990 and 1992, respectively.
to the park
The Park is approximately 370 km by air
from Kathmandu. The airport at Nepalganj,
ca 85 km from park headquarters provides
air transport facilities for the area. It
can be approached overland from Kathmandu
through Prithbi Highway (Kathmandu-Mugling),
Mugling-Narayangarh Highway and East-West
high (Narayangarh to Amreni). A 13 km rough
road turns west from East-West highway at
Amreni leading to park headquarters. Surface
travel with two wheel vehicles is difficult
during monsoon since no bridge exists across
Orai River (ca 1 km from Amreni) and it
occasionally swells high due to monsoon
rain. The park is not accessible by vehicle
during monsoon. Domestic elephant are the
only safest mode of transport during monsoon.
Telecommunication facilities are available
in our lodge. One public telephone service
center with ISTD communication facility
is operational at Thakurdwara temple area,
ca 2.5 km east from Rhino Lodge Bardia.
Cyber-café is also available for
e-mail and Internet in Bardia.